Orthotic Abilities - Specialty Orthopedic Hand & Foot Center

Common Conditions

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Common Conditions Foot Conditions Hand Conditions

Hip Pain

Bursitis

Unequal
Leg Length

Knee Pain

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Patellofemoral Pain
Syndrome

Runner's Knee
(Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome)

Jumper's Knee

Calf Pain

Compartment
Syndrome

Shin Pain

Shin Splints
(Tibial Stress Syndrome)

Ankle Pain

Achilles Tendonitis

Haglunds Deformity

Recurring Ankle Sprains
(Later Ankle Instability)

Heel Pain

Heel Pain
(Plantar Fasciitis)

Heal Spur

Fatpad Syndrome

High Arch Foot

Foot Pain

Collapsed Arch

Heavy Calluses

Bunions

Metatarsalgia

Arthritis

Corns

Hammertoes

Morton's Neuroma

Hand Pain

Mallet Finger

Wrist Pain

De Quervains

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Hand Fractures

Bursitis

Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae (small sacs) of synovial fluid in the body. The bursae rest at the points where muscles and tendons slide across bone. Healthy bursae create a smooth, almost frictionless gliding surface, making normal movement painless. When bursitis occurs, however, movement becomes difficult and painful. Moreover, movement of tendons and muscles over the inflamed bursa aggravates its inflammation, perpetuating the problem.

Bursitis symptoms vary from local joint pain and stiffness, to burning pain that surrounds the joint around the inflamed bursa. In this condition, the pain is usually worse during and after activity.

Unequal Leg Length

Unequal leg length or leg length inequality (LLI) refers to a medical condition where the legs are of different lengths. LLI can be either anatomical in nature (short bones due to growth or an accident) or neuromuscular (hypertonicity in the musculature of the pelvis or leg).

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

(ITBS or ITBFS, for iliotibial band friction syndrome is a common injury to the thigh, generally associated with running, cycling, hiking or weight-lifting (especially squats).

ITBS is one of the leading causes of lateral knee pain in runners. The iliotibial band is a superficial thickening of tissue on the outside of the thigh, extending from the outside of the pelvis, over the hip and knee, and inserting just below the knee. The band is crucial to stabilizing the knee during running, moving from behind the femur to the front while walking.

Symptoms range from a stinging sensation just above the knee joint (or along the entire length of the iliotibial band) to swelling or thickening of the tissue at the point where the band moves over the femur.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a syndrome characterized by pain or discomfort seemingly originating from the contact of the posterior surface of the patella (back of the kneecap) with the femur (thigh bone). It is the most frequently encountered diagnosis in sports medicine clinics.

Runner's Knee

Runner's Knee is also referred to as Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome or Chondromalacia patellae. It is one of the most common running injuries. As shin splints has become a catch all phrase for all pain in the shin area, runner's knee has become something of a catch all for all pain in the front portion of the knee.

Runner's Knee occurs when the cartilage underneath kneecap begins to soften or wear away and crack.

Symptoms include tenderness behind or around the patella, usually toward its center. You may feel pain toward the back of the knee, a sense of cracking or that the knee's giving out. Steps, hills, and uneven terrain can aggravate PFPS. Pain is often most severe after running hills.

Jumper's Knee

Jumper's knee (patellar tendinopathy, patellar tendinosis, patellar tendinitis) commonly occurs in athletes who are involved in jumping sports such as basketball and volleyball. Patients report anterior knee pain, often with an aching quality.

Compartment Syndrome

Compartment syndrome is a limb threatening and life threatening condition, defined as the compression of nerves, blood vessels, and muscle inside a closed space (compartment) within the body. This leads to tissue death from lack of oxygenation because of blood vessels being compressed by the raised pressure within the compartment. Compartment syndrome most often involves the forearm and lower leg, and can be divided into acute, subacute, and chronic compartment syndrome. An alternative definition of compartment syndrome, according to Rankin, is characterized by pressure within a closed space thus compromising the circulation and function of tissues in that space (Rankin, 1981).

Shin Splints

Shin splints or medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) refers to pain along or just behind the shins, often caused by sports that apply extreme pressure to the legs, such as gymnastics. Ten to fifteen percent of running injuries are shin splints.

Muscle imbalance, including weakened core muscles lead to more lower-extremity injuries; also the inflexibility and tightness of the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantar muscles can contribute to shin splints. Increasing activity, intensity, and duration too quickly leads to shin splints because the tendons and muscles are unable to absorb the impact of the shock force as they become fatigued. The impact is made worse by running on uneven terrain, uphill, downhill, or hard surfaces. Improper footwear, including worn-out shoes can also contribute to shin splints.

Achilles Tendonitis

Achilles tendonitis (also Achilles tendinopathy) is tendonitis of the Achilles tendon, generally caused by overuse of the affected limb and is common among athletes training in less than ideal conditions.

The Achilles tendon does not have good blood supply or cell activity, so this injury can be slow to heal. The tendon receives nutrients from the tendon sheath or paratendon. When an injury occurs to the tendon, cells from surrounding structures migrate into the tendon to assist in repair. Some of these cells come from blood vessels that enter the tendon to provide direct blood flow to increase healing.

Haglund's Deformity

Haglund's deformity (aka the Mulhulland Deformity) is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel that most often leads to painful bursitis, which is an inflammation of the bursa (a fluid-filled sac between the tendon and bone). In Haglund's deformity, the soft tissue near the Achilles tendon becomes irritated when the bony enlargement rubs against shoes.

Haglund's deformity is often called "pump bump" because the rigid backs of pump-style shoes can create pressure that aggravates the enlargement when walking. The deformity is most common in young women who wear pumps.

Recurring Ankle Sprains

A sprained ankle, also known as an ankle sprain, twisted ankle, rolled ankle, ankle injury or ankle ligament injury, is a common medical condition where one or more of the ligaments of the ankle is torn or partially torn.

Sprains happen when the foot is rolled or turned beyond motions that are considered normal for the ankle. An ankle sprain usually occurs when a person lands from jumping or running onto an uneven surface. Sprained ankles can also occur during normal daily activities such as stepping off a curb or slipping on ice. Returning to activity before the ligaments have fully healed may cause them to heal in a stretched position, resulting in less stability at the ankle joint. This can lead to a condition known as Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI), and an increased risk of ankle sprains.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is a painful inflammatory process of the plantar fascia, the connective tissue on the sole (bottom surface) of the foot.

The plantar fascia is a thick fibrous band of connective tissue originating on the bottom surface of the calcaneus (heel bone) and extending along the sole of the foot towards the toes. It is commonly associated with long periods of weight bearing. The pain is usually felt on the underside of the heel and is often most intense with the first steps of the day.

Heel Spur

A calcaneal spur (or heel spur) is a small osteophyte (bone spur) located on the calcaneus (heel bone). Calcaneal spurs are typically detected by X-rays. An inferior calcaneal spur is located on the inferior aspect of the calcaneus and is typically a response to plantar fasciitis over a period, but may also be associated with ankylosing spondylitis (typically in children). A posterior calcaneal spur develops on the back of the heel at the insertion of the Achilles tendon.

Fat Pad Syndrome

Fat pad syndrome is characterised by pain over the centre of the heel which often feels like a deep bruise. The fat pad aids in cushioning and protecting the heel. When the heel gets injured, the fat pad stretches losing some of that cushion, which can make weight bearing very uncomfortable.

Fat pad syndrome can be caused by a direct blow to the heel such as fall onto the heels or chronically from excessive heel strike with poor heel cushioning.

High Arches

High arch (also high instep, pes cavus in medical terminology) is a human foot type in which the sole of the foot is distinctly hollow when bearing weight. That is, there is a fixed plantar flexion of the foot. A high arch is the opposite of a flat foot, and somewhat less common.

Fallen/Collapsed Arches

Fallen arches (also called pes planus or flat feet) is a formal reference to a medical condition in which the arch of the foot collapses, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground.

The appearance of flat feet is normal and common in infants, partly due to "baby fat" which masks the developing arch and partly because the arch has not yet fully developed. The human arch develops in infancy and early childhood as part of normal muscle, tendon, ligament and bone growth. Training of the feet, especially by foot gymnastics and going barefoot on varying terrain, can facilitate the formation of arches during childhood. Flat arches in children usually become proper arches and high arches while the child progresses through adolescence and into adulthood.

Heavy Calluses

A callus (or callosity) is an especially toughened area of skin which has become relatively thick and hard in response to repeated friction, pressure, or other irritation. Rubbing that is too frequent or forceful will cause blisters rather than allow calluses to form. Since repeated contact is required, calluses are most often found on feet because of frequent walking. Calluses are generally not harmful, but may sometimes lead to other problems, such as skin ulceration or infection.

Bunions

A bunion (hallux valgus) is a deformity characterized by lateral deviation (turning in) of the great toe. The term is used to refer to the pathological bump on the side of the great toe joint. The bump is partly due to the swollen bursal sac and/or an osseous (bony) anomaly on the mesophalangeal joint (where the first metatarsal bone and hallux meet). The larger part of the bump is a normal part of the head of first metatarsal bone that has tilted sideways to stick out at its top.

Metatarsalgia

Metatarsalgia (literally metatarsal pain, also known as stone bruise) is a general term referring to any painful foot condition affecting the metatarsal region of the foot. This is a common problem that can affect the joints and bones of the metatarsals. Metatarsalgia is most often localized to the first metatarsal head (the ball of the foot just behind the big toe). There are two small sesamoid bones under the first metatarsal head. The next most frequent site of metatarsal head pain is under the second metatarsal. This can be due to either too short a first metatarsal bone or to "hypermobility of the first ray" (metatarsal bone + medial cuneiform bone behind it), both of which result in excess pressure being transmitted into the second metatarsal head.

Arthritis

Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more joints.

There are over 100 different forms of arthritis. The most common form, osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease), is a result of trauma to the joint, infection of the joint, or age. Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and related autoimmune diseases. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection.

Arthritic joint pain is due to inflammation that occurs around the joint, from damage to the joint from disease, daily wear and tear of joints, or muscle strains caused by forceful movements against stiff, painful joints.

Corns

A corn (or clavus, plural clavi) is a specially-shaped callus of dead skin that usually occurs on thin or glabrous (hairless and smooth) skin surfaces, especially on the dorsal (top)surface of toes or fingers. They can sometimes occur on the thicker palmar or plantar (bottom) skin surfaces. Corns form when the pressure point against the skin traces an elliptical or semi-elliptical path during the rubbing motion, the center of which is at the point of pressure, gradually widening. If there is constant stimulation of the tissue producing the corns.

Hammer Toe

A hammer toe or contracted toe is a deformity of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the second, third, or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent, resembling a hammer. Mallet toe is a similar condition affecting the distal interphalangeal joint.

Hammer toe most frequently results from wearing poorly fitting shoes that can force the toe into a bent position, such as excessively high heels or shoes that are too short or narrow for the foot. Having the toes bent for long periods of time can cause the muscles in them to shorten, resulting in the hammer toe deformity. It can also be caused by muscle, nerve, or joint damage resulting from conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease or diabetes.

Morton's Neuroma

Morton's Neuroma (also known as Morton's metatarsalgia, Morton's Neuralgia, plantar neuroma and intermetatarsal neuroma) is a benign neuroma of an intermetatarsal plantar nerve, most commonly of the third and fourth intermetatarsal spaces. This problem is characterised by pain and/or numbness or burning, sometimes relieved by removing footwear.

Despite the name, many sources do not consider Morton's neuroma a true tumor, but rather a perineural fibroma (fibrous tissue formation around nerve tissue). Symptoms include: pain on weight bearing, frequently after only a short time.

Mallet Finger

Mallet finger injuries occur when the tip of a finger or the thumb is forcefully bent. This condition is also known as baseball finger. It happens when a ball or other object strikes the tip of the digit. The force tears the thin tendon that allows you to straighten the finger. The force of the blow may even pull away a piece of bone along with the tendon.

De Quervains

De Quervains's stenosing tenosynovitis is an irritation and swelling of the sheath or tunnel which surrounds the thumb tendons as they pass from the wrist to the thumb. Pain when grasping or pinching and tenderness over the tunnel are the most common symptoms. Sometimes a lump or thickening can be felt in this area. If the hand is made into a fist with the thumb "tucked in" and bent towards the little finger, the pain gets worse (Finkelstein test)

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Common symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome are numbness and tingling in the hand, especially at night; pain with prolonged gripping such as holding a steering wheel; or clumsiness in handling objects. Sometimes the pain can go all the way up to the shoulder. These symptoms are caused by pressure on the median nerve as it enters the hand through a tunnel in the wrist.

Hand Fractures

A fracture occurs when enough force is applied to a bone to break it. Fractures may be simple with the bone pieces aligned and stable. Other fractures are unstable and the bone fragments tend to displace or shift.